Canine and Feline Genetic Musculoskeletal Diseases
Selected Dysostoses with a known Genetic Etiology*

Breed

Disease

Mode of inheritance

Dogs

Australian shepherd

Polydactyly (extra digits)

X-linked lethal or sex-influenced autosomal

beagle

Brachury (short tail)

Simple autosomal dominant

bulldog

Spina bifida

Unknown

Cairn terrier

Anury (no tail)

Unknown

Chihuahua

Hemimelia

Unknown

cocker spaniel

Anury (no tail)

Autosomal recessive

German short-haired pointer

Hemivertebra

Simple autosomal recessive

Great Pyrenees

Polydactyly (extra digits)

Autosomal dominant

Saint Bernard

Polydactyly (extra digits)

Autosomal recessive

Cats

domestic shorthair

Hemimelia

Autosomal

Selected Osteochondrodysplasias*

Breed

Disease

Mode of inheritance

Dogs

Alaskan malamute

Chondrodysplasia

Simple autosomal recessive

Akita

Achondrogenesis

Unknown

beagle

Chondrodysplasia punctata

Multiple Epiphyseal

Dysplasia Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Unknown

Simple autosomal

Recessive

bulldog

Osteochondrodysplasia

Unknown

bull terrier

Osteochondrodysplasia

Unknown

cocker spaniel

Hypochondroplasia

Simple autosomal recessive

Great Pyrenees

Chondrodysplasia

Simple autosomal recessive

Labrador retriever

Oculo-skeletal dysplasia

Simple autosomal recessive

miniature poodle

Achondroplasia

Epiphyseal chondrodysplasia

Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

Simple autosomal recessive

Unknown

Unknown

mixed-breed dog

Mucopolysaccharidosis VII

Simple autosomal recessive

Norwegian elkhound

Chondrodysplasia

Simple autosomal recessive

Plott hound

Mucopolysaccharidosis I

Simple autosomal recessive

Samoyed

Oculo-skeletal dysplasia without hematological abnormalities

Oculo-skeletal dysplasia with hematological abnormalities

Simple autosomal recessive

Unknown

Scottish terrier

Achondroplasia

Idiopathic multifocal osteopathy

Unknown

Unknown

Scottish deerhound

Pseudoachondroplasia

Simple autosomal recessive

Cats

domestic shorthair

Mucopolysaccharidosis I

Unknown

Siamese

Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

Simple autosomal recessive

Siamese

Multiple cartilagenous exostoses

Unknown

Breed Predisposition for Developmental Orthopedic Diseases* ‡

Disease

Dog breeds at increased risk for specific DODs.

CHD

Airedale, Alaskan malamute, bearded collie, Bernese mountain dog, bloodhound, border collie, Bouvier des Flandres, briard, Brittany spaniel, bulldog, bullmastiff, Chesapeake Bay retriever, chow chow, English springer spaniel, German shepherd dog, German wirehaired pointer, giant schnauzer, golden retriever, Gordon setter, Great Dane, Great Pyrenees, keeshond, Kuvasz, Labrador retriever, mastiff, Neapolitan mastiff, Newfoundland, Norwegian elkhound, Old English sheepdog, pointer, Portuguese water dog, rottweiler, Saint Bernard, Samoyed, Tree Walker coonhound

CMO

Cairn terrier, Scottish terrier, West Highland white terrier

FCP

Basset hound, Bernese mountain dog, Bouvier des Flandres, bullmastiff, chow chow, German shepherd dog, golden retriever, Gordon setter, Irish wolfhound, Labrador retriever, mastiff, Newfoundland, rottweiler, Saint Bernard

HOD

Boxer, Chesapeake Bay retriever, German shepherd dog, golden retriever, Great Dane, Irish setter, Labrador retriever, Weimaraner

LCP

Australian shepherd, Cairn terrier, Chihuahua, dachshund, Lhasa apso, miniature pinscher, pug, toy poodle, West Highland white terrier, Yorkshire terrier

OCD Elbow

Chow chow, German shepherd dog, golden retriever, Great Dane, Labrador retriever, Newfoundland, rottweiler

OCD Shoulder

Bernese mountain dog, border collie, Bouvier des Flandres, boxer, bullmastiff, Chesapeake Bay retriever, dalmation, English setter, German shorthaired pointer, German shepherd dog, German wirehaired pointer, golden retriever, Great Dane, Great Pyrenees, Irish wolfhound, Kuvasz, Labrador retriever, mastiff, Munsterland, Newfoundland, Old English sheepdog, rottweiler, Saint Bernard, standard poodle

OCD Stifle

Boxer, bulldog, German shepherd dog, golden retriever, Great Dane,Irish wolfhound, Labrador retriever, mastiff, rottweiler

OCD Tarsus

Labrador retriever, rottweiler, bullmastiff

Panosteitis

Afghan hound, Akita, American cocker spaniel, American Staffordshire terrier, basset hound, bearded collie, Bernese mountain dog, boxer, bull terrier, bulldog, Chesapeake Bay retriever, chow chow, dalmation, Doberman pinscher, English setter, English springer spaniel, giant schnauzer, German shepherd dog, German shorthaired pointer, golden retriever, Great Dane, Great Pyrenees, Irish wolfhound, Labrador retriever, mastiff, Neapolitan mastiff, Newfoundland, Rhodesian ridgeback, rottweiler, Saint Bernard, shih tzu, Weimaraner, West Highland white terrier

PL

Akita, American cocker spaniel, Australian terrier, basset hound, bichon frise, Boston terrier, bulldog, Cairn terrier, Cavalier King Charles spaniel, Chihuahua, Chinese shar pei, chow chow, flat-coated retriever, Great Pyrenees, Japanese chin, keeshond, Lhasa apso, Maltese, miniature pinscher, miniature poodle, papillon, Pekingese, Pomeranian, pug, shih tzu, silky terrier, standard poodle, toy fox terrier, toy poodle, West Highland white terrier, wirehaired fox terrier, Yorkshire terrier

UAP

Basset hound, Bernese mountain dog, Chinese shar pei, chow chow, English setter, German shepherd dog, golden retriever, Labrador retriever, mastiff, Newfoundland, Pomeranian, rottweiler, Saint Bernard

Congenital Myopathies

Disease

Breed(s)

Mode of Inheritance

Progressive (Muscular Dystrophy)

Dystrophy-like Myopathy

Siamese, European and domestic shorthair cats

X-linked

Irish Setter Myopathy

Irish setter

X-linked

Labrador Retriever Myopathy

Labrador retriever

Autosomal recessive

Muscular Dystrophy

golden retriever

X-linked

Progressive (Metabolic)

Amylo-1,6-Glucosidase Deficiency

German shepherd dogs

 

a-1,4-Glucosidase Deficiency

Lapland dogs

 

Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

pit bull terrier

 

Mitochondrial Myopathy

Clumber spaniels, Sussex spaniels, Irish terrier

X-linked (Irish terrier)

Phosphofructokinase Deficiency

English springer spaniels

 

Other

Central Core Disease

dogs

 

Dancing Doberman Syndrome

Doberman pinscher

 

Dermatomyositis

collie, Shetland sheepdog

 

Familial Myoclonus

Labrador retriever

 

Myasthenia Gravis

Dogs: Jack Russell terrier, smooth-coated terrier, Springer spaniel

 

cats

 

Myotonia Congenita

chow chow, West Highland white terrier, Great Dane, Staffordshire bull terrier, black Labrador

Autosomal  recessive

Myotonic Dystrophy-like disease

Rhodesian ridgeback

 

Nemaline Myopathy

cats

 

Scotty Cramp

Scottish terrier, dalmatian

 

 

*

Breur GJ, Lust G, Todhunter RJ. Genetics of canine hip dysplasia and other orthopedic traits, in Ruvinsky A, Sampson, J (eds): The Genetics of the Dog. New York, NY, CABI Publishing, 2001, pps 267-298.

LaFond E, Breur GJ, and Austin CC. Breed susceptibility for developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 2002; 38: 467-477.