Kevin R. Kazacos, DVM, PhD

Department of Comparative Pathobiology

Professor Emeritus

Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine
625 Harrison Street
West Lafayette, IN 47907



1979 - DVM | Purdue University
1974 - PhD | University of Notre Dame
1971 - BS | SUNY at Albany

Selected Publications

Pai PJ, Blackburn BG, Kazacos KR, Warrier RP, Begue RE. First case of Baylisascaris procyonis eosinophilic meningitis with recovery. Emerg. Infect. Dis. X:xx-xx.
Schweitzer KD, McClean KL, Kazacos KR, Garcia R. 2007. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis: A case of mistaken identity. Retinal Cases Brief Rep. X:xx-xx.
Noce SM, Ayebo AD, Kazacos KR, Humphreys J, Brenneman WM. 2007. Prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis (Raccoon roundworm) in Indiana County, Pennsylvania. J. Pennsylv. Acad. Sci. X:xx-xx.
Kazacos KR. 2006. Unusual fecal parasite in a dog. NAVC Clinician's Brief 4:37-39.
Gavin PJ, Kazacos KR, Shulman ST. 2005. Baylisascariasis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18:703-718.
Charles SD, Altreuther G, Reinemeyer CR, Buch J, Settje T, Cruthers L, Kok DJ, Bowman DD, Kazacos KR, Jenkins DJ, Schein E. 2005. Evaluation of the efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution against cestode (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaefor
Murray WJ, Kazacos KR. 2004. Raccoon roundworm encephalitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:1484-1492.
Roussere GP, Murray WJ, Raudenbush CB, Kutilek MJ, Levee DJ, Kazacos KR. 2003. Raccoon roundworm eggs near homes and risk for larva migrans disease, California communities. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:1516-1522.
Kimball VP, Young D, Keith R, Kazacos KR, Sakanari J. 2003. Occurrence of Baylisascaris procyonis in Marin, Sonoma, and Alameda Counties in northern California. Calif. Fish and Game. 89:46-50.
Mets MB, Noble AG, Basti S, Gavin P, Davis AT, Shulman ST, Kazacos KR. 2003. Eye findings of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis and multiple choroidal infiltrates associated with neural larva migrans due to Baylisascaris procyonis. Am. J. Ophthalm
Kazacos KR. 2003. Cystic and alveolar hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus species in the contiguous United States. Compend. Contin. Educ. Pract. Vet. 25 (7A):16-20.
Gavin PJ, Kazacos KR, Tan TQ, Brinkman WB, Byrd SE, Davis AT, Mets MB, Shulman ST. 2002. Neural larva migrans caused by the raccoon roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21:971-975.
Kazacos KR. 2002 Larva migrans from pets and wildlife. In Emerging vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. Compend. Contin. Educ. Pract. Vet. 24 (1A):41-46.
Centers for Disease Control. 2002. Raccoon roundworm encephalitis - Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California, 2000. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50(51&52):1153-1155. (Primary contributing author).
Storandt ST, Virchow DR, Dryden MW, Hygnstrom SE, Kazacos KR. 2001. Distribution and prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in wild predators in Nebraska, Kansas, and Wyoming. J. Parasitol. 88:420-422.
Page LK, Swihart RK, Kazacos KR. 2001. Foraging among feces: Food availability affects parasitism of Peromyscus leucopus by Baylisascaris procyonis. J. Mammal. 82:993-1002.
Moertel CL, Kazacos KR, Butterfield JH, Kita H, Watterson J, Gleich GJ. 2001. Eosinophil-associated inflammation and elaboration of eosinophil-derived proteins in 2 children with raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) encephalitis. Pediatrics 108:e93
Al-Rukibat RK, Irizarry AR, Lacey JK, Kazacos KR, Storandt ST, DeNicola DB. 2001. What is your diagnosis?: Impression smear of liver tissue from a rabbit. Vet. Clin. Pathol. 30:57-61.
Page LK, Swihart RK, Kazacos KR. 2001. The roles of seed preference and foraging by granivores at raccoon latrines in transmission dynamics of raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis). Can. J. Zool. 79:616-622.
Page LK, Swihart RK, Kazacos KR. 2001. Changes in transmission of Baylisascaris procyonis to intermediate hosts as a function of spatial scale. Oikos 93:213-220.
Park SY, Glaser C, Murray WJ, Kazacos KR, Rowley HR, Frederick D, Bass N. 2000. Raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) encephalitis: Case report and field investigation. Pediatrics 106:e56. (
Kazacos KR. 2000. Protecting children from helminthic zoonoses. Vet. Med. 95(3)(Suppl.):1-24.
Kazacos KR. 2000. Protecting children from helminthic zoonoses. Contemp. Pediatr. 17(3)(Suppl.):1-24.
Rowley HA, Uht RM, Kazacos KR, Sakanari J, Wheaton WV, Barkovich AJ, Bollen AW. 2000. Radiologic-pathologic findings in raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) encephalitis. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 21:415-420.
Dubey JP, Storandt ST, Kwok OCH, Thulliez P, Kazacos KR. 1999. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in naturally exposed wild coyotes, red foxes, and gray foxes, and serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in red foxes fed T. gondii oocysts and tissue cysts. J. Para
Page LK, Swihart RK, Kazacos KR. 1999. Implications of raccoon latrines in the epizootiology of baylisascariasis. J. Wildl. Dis. 35:474-480.
Page LK, Swihart RK, Kazacos KR. 1998. Raccoon latrine structure and its potential role in transmission of Baylisascaris procyonis to vertebrates. Am. Midl. Nat. 140:180-185.
Sheppard CH, Kazacos KR. 1997. Susceptibility of Peromyscus leucopus and Mus musculus to infection with Baylisascaris procyonis. J. Parasitol. 83:1104-1111.
Wozniak EJ, Kazacos KR, Telford SR Jr, McLaughlin GL. 1996. Characterization of the clinical and anatomical pathological changes associated with Hepatozoon mocassini infections in unnatural reptilian hosts. Int. J. Parasitol. 26:141-146.
Suedmeyer WK, Bermudez A, Kazacos KR. 1996. Cerebellar nematodiasis in an emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 27:544-549.
Rudmann DG, Kazacos KR, Storandt ST, Harris DL, Janovitz EB. 1996. Baylisascaris procyonis larva migrans in a puppy: A case report and update for the veterinarian. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 32:73-76.
Schafer KA, Stevenson GW, Kazacos KR. 1995. Hepatic coccidiosis associated with hepatic necrosis in a goat. Vet. Pathol. 32:723-727.
Woolums AR, DeNicola DB, Rhyan JC, Murphy DA, Kazacos KR, Jenkins SJ, Kaufman L, Thornburg M. 1995. Pulmonary histoplasmosis in a llama. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 7:567-569.
Kazacos KR, Murrell KD. 1995. Trichinellosis, In Zoonosis Updates from the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2nd Ed. American Veterinary Medical Association, Schaumburg, IL, pp. 150-154.
Kazacos KR, Boyce WM. 1995. Baylisascaris larva migrans. Addendum to 1989 review, In Zoonosis Updates from the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2nd Ed. American Veterinary Medical Association, Schaumburg, IL, pp. 29-30.
Van Andel RA, Franklin CL, Besch-Williford C, Riley LK, Hook RR Jr, Kazacos KR. 1995.Cerebrospinal larva migrans due to Baylisascaris procyonis in a guinea pig colony. Lab. Anim. Sci. 45:27-30.
Cunningham CK, Kazacos KR, McMillan JA, Lucas JA, McAuley JB, Wozniak EJ, Weiner LB. 1994. Diagnosis and management of Baylisascaris procyonis infection in an infant with nonfatal meningoencephalitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18:868-872.
Waggoner JK, Cecava MJ, Kazacos KR. 1994. Efficacy of lasalocid and decoquinate against coccidiosis in naturally infected weaned dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 77:349-353.
Hildreth MB, Kazacos KR. 1993. Echinococcus multilocularis: A zoonotic tapeworm of potential concern in dogs and cats. Vet. Technician 14:640-647.
Goldberg MA, Kazacos KR, Boyce WM, Ai E, Katz B. 1993. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis. Morphometric, serologic, and epidemiologic support for Baylisascaris as a causative agent. Ophthalmology 100:1695-1701.
Fitzgerald SD, Janovitz EB, Kazacos KR, Dubey JP, Murphy DA. 1993. Sarcocystosis with involvement of the central nervous system in lambs. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 5:291-296.
Storandt ST, Kazacos KR. 1993. Echinococcus multilocularis identified in Indiana, Ohio, and east-central Illinois. J. Parasitol. 79:301-305.
Kazacos KR, Fitzgerald SD, Reed WM. 1991. Baylisascaris procyonis as a cause of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in ratites. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 22:211-217.
Kazacos KR. 1991. Visceral and ocular larva migrans. Sem. Vet. Med. Surg. (Sm. Anim.) 6:227-235.
Fitzgerald SD, White MR, Kazacos KR. 1991. Encephalitis in two porcupines due to Baylisascaris larval migration. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 3:359-362.
Hildreth MB, Johnson MD, Kazacos KR. 1991. Echinococcus multilocularis: A zoonosis of increasing concern in the United States. Comp. Cont. Ed. Pract. Vet. 13:727-741.
Kazacos KR, Boyce WM. 1989. Baylisascaris larva migrans. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 195:894-903.
Boyce WM, Asai DJ, Wilder JK, Kazacos KR. 1989. Physicochemical characterization and monoclonal and polyclonal antibody recognition of Baylisascaris procyonis larval excretory-secretory antigens. J. Parasitol. 75:540-548.
McDonald HR, Kazacos KR, Schatz H, Johnson RN. 1994. Two cases of intraocular infection with Alaria mesocercariae (Trematoda). Am. J. Ophthalmol. 117:447-455.
Armstrong DL, Montali RJ, Doster AR, Kazacos KR. 1989. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis in macaws due to Baylisascaris procyonis. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 20:354-359.
Minchella DJ, Branstetter BA, Kazacos KR. 1989. Molecular characterization of sylvatic isolates of Trichinella spiralis. J. Parasitol. 75:388-392.
Hamann KJ, Kephart GM, Kazacos KR, Gleich GJ. 1989. Immunofluorescent localization of eosinophil granule major basic protein in fatal human cases of Baylisascaris procyonis infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 40:291-297.
Dixon D, Reinhard GR, Kazacos KR, Arriaga C. 1988. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis in prairie dogs from a research facility. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 193:251-253.
Boyce WM, Branstetter BA, Kazacos KR. 1988. Comparative analysis of larval excretory-secretory antigens of Baylisascaris procyonis, Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum by western blotting and enzyme immunoassay. Int. J. Parasitol. 18:109-113.
Kazacos KR, Kazacos EA. 1988. Diagnostic exercise: Neuromuscular condition in rabbits. Lab Anim. Sci. 38:187-189.
Boyce WM, Branstetter BA, Kazacos KR. 1988. In vitro culture of Baylisascaris procyonis and initial analysis of larval excretory-secretory antigens. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 55:15-18.
Boyce WM, Kazacos EA, Kazacos KR, Engelhardt JA. 1987. Pathology of pentastomid infections (Sebekia mississippiensis) in fish. J. Wildl. Dis. 23:689-692.
Hughes PL, Dubielzig RR, Kazacos K. 1987. Multifocal retinitis in New Zealand sheep dogs. Vet. Pathol. 24:22-27.
Kazacos KR. 1986. Raccoon ascarids as a cause of larva migrans. Parasitology Today 2:253-255.
Kazacos KR, Reed WM, Thacker HL. 1986. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis in pheasants. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 189:1353-1354.
Kazacos KR. 1986. Trichinosis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 188:1272-1275.
Murrell KD, Anderson WR, Schad GA, Hanbury RD, Kazacos KR, Gamble HR, Brown J. 1986. Field evaluation of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for swine trichinosis: Efficacy of the excretory-secretory antigen. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47:1046-1049.
Kazacos KR, Little AS, Rohe FJ, Wade WF, Gaafar SM. 1986. A tongue biopsy technique for the detection of Trichinella spiralis in swine. Vet. Parasitol. 19:151-156.
Fox AS, Kazacos KR, Gould NS, Heydemann PT, Thomas C, Boyer KM. 1985. Fatal eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and visceral larva migrans caused by the raccoon ascarid Baylisascaris procyonis. New Engl. J. Med. 312:1619-1623.
Kazacos KR, Raymond LA, Kazacos EA, Vestre WA. 1985. The raccoon ascarid - A probable cause of human ocular larva migrans. Ophthalmology 92:1735-1743.
Kazacos KR. 1985. Raccoon roundworms (Baylisascaris procyonis): A cause of animal and human disease. Environ. Hlth. Rev. 29:15-25.
Evinger JV, Kazacos KR, Cantwell HD. 1985. Ivermectin for treatment of nasal capillariasis in a dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 186:174-175.
Morter RL, Kazacos KR, Amstutz HE. 1984. Comparative clinical efficacy of fenbendazole and thiabendazole in feedlot heifers. Bovine Practitioner 19:213-215.
Huff DS, Neafie RC, Binder MJ, DeLeon GA, Brown LW, Kazacos KR. 1984. The first fatal Baylisascaris infection in humans: An infant with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Pediatr. Pathol. 2:345-352.
Kazacos KR, Vestre WA, Kazacos EA, Raymond LA. 1984. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis: Probable cause. Arch. Ophthalmol. 102:967-968.
Kazacos KR, Vestre WA, Kazacos EA. 1984. Raccoon ascarid larvae as a cause of ocular larva migrans. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25:1177-1183.
Kazacos KR, Kazacos EA. 1984. Experimental infection of domestic swine with Baylisascaris procyonis from raccoons. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45:1114-1121.
Kazacos EA, Kazacos KR, Demaree H. 1983. Notoedric mange in two fox squirrels. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 183:1281-1282.
Kazacos KR, Reed WM, Kazacos EA, Thacker HL. 1983. Fatal cerebrospinal disease caused by Baylisascaris procyonis in domestic rabbits. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 183:967-971.
Render JA, Kazacos EA, Kazacos KR, Vestre WA, Carlton WW. 1983. Ocular, naso-maxillary, and neural anomalies in raccoons Procyon lotor (L.). J. Wildl. Dis. 19:234-243.
Steckel RR, Kazacos KR, Harrington DD, Thacker HL, Rebar AH. 1983. Equine pulmonary habronemiasis with acute hemolytic anemia resulting from organophosphate treatment. Equine Practice 5:35-39.
Mehdi NAQ, Kazacos KR, Carlton WW. 1983. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a goat. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 183:115-117.
Morse EV, Midla DA, Kazacos KR. 1983. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) as carriers of Salmonella. J. Environ. Sci. Hlth., Part A. 18:541-560.
Kazacos KR, Wirtz WL. 1983. Experimental cerebrospinal nematodiasis due to Baylisascaris procyonis in chickens. Avian Dis. 27:55-65.
Kazacos KR. 1983. Improved method for recovering ascarid and other helminth eggs from soil associated with epizootics and during survey studies. Am. J. Vet. Res. 44:896-900.
Kazacos KR, Turek JJ. 1983. Scanning electron microscopy of the eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis, B. transfuga and Parascaris equorum and their comparison with Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 50:36-42.
Kazacos KR, Appel GO. 1983. Euclinostomum heterostomum metacercariae (Trematoda: Clinostomatidae) from the Aquarium Ram, Apistogramma ramirezi (Pisces: Cichlidae). Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 50:103-107.
Kazacos KR, Kazacos EA, Render JA, Thacker HL. 1982. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis and visceral larva migrans in an Australian (Latham's) brush turkey. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 181:1295-1298.
Jacobson JE, Kazacos KR, Montague FH Jr. 1982. Prevalence of eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis (Nematoda: Ascaroidea) in raccoon scats from an urban and a rural community. J. Wildl. Dis. 18:461-464.
Kazacos KR, Turek JJ. 1982. Scanning electron microscopy of the labia of Baylisascaris procyonis (Nematoda). J. Parasitol. 68:634-641.
Kazacos KR. 1982. Contaminative ability of Baylisascaris procyonis infected raccoons in an outbreak of cerebrospinal nematodiasis. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 40:155-157.
Kazacos KR, Winterfield RW, Thacker HL. 1982. Etiology and epidemiology of verminous encephalitis in an emu. Avian Dis. 26:389-391.
Kazacos KR, Thacker HL, Shivaprasad HL, Burger PP. 1981. Vaccination-induced distemper in kinkajous. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 179:1166-1169.
Kazacos KR, Appel GO, Thacker HL. 1981. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis in a woodchuck suspected of having rabies. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 179:1102-1104.
Kazacos KR, Baker JS, Kopcha M, Wirtz WL, Christmas CS. 1981. Fenbendazole for the treatment of pulmonary and gastrointestinal helminths in pygmy goats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 179:1255-1258.
Kazacos KR, Wirtz WL, Burger PP, Christmas CS. 1981. Raccoon ascarid larvae as a cause of fatal central nervous system disease in subhuman primates. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 179:1089-1094.
Reed WM, Kazacos KR, Dhillon AS, Winterfield RW, Thacker HL. 1981. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis in bobwhite quail. Avian Dis. 25:1039-1046.
Johnson KE, Kazacos KR, Blevins WE, Cantwell HD. 1981. Albendazole for treatment of Paragonimus kellicotti infection in two cats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 178:483-485.
Ladouceur CA, Kazacos KR. 1981. Eyeworms in cattle in Indiana. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 178:385-387.
Ladouceur CA, Kazacos KR. 1981. Thelazia lacrymalis in horses in Indiana. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 178:301-302.
Kazacos KR, Bright RM, Johnson KE, Anderson KL, Cantwell HD. 1980. Cuterebra spp. as a cause of pharyngeal myiasis in cats. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 16:773-776.
Frauenfelder HC, Kazacos KR, Lichtenfels JR. 1980. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis caused by a filariid in a horse. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 177:359-362.
Kazacos KR, Dhillon AS, Winterfield RW, Thacker HL. 1980. Fatal hepatic trematodiasis in cockatoos due to Platynosomum proxillicens. Avian Dis. 24:788-793.
Dhillon AS, Winterfield RW, Thacker HL, Kazacos KR, Alby LJ. 1980. Atypical histomoniasis in bobwhite quail. Avian Dis. 24:510-516.
Richardson JA, Kazacos KR, Thacker HL, Dhillon AS, Winterfield RW. 1980. Verminous encephalitis in commercial chickens. Avian Dis. 24:498-503.
Kazacos KR, Dougherty TJ. 1979. Naturally occurring prenatal infection with Toxocara canis in wolf pups (Canis lupus) born in captivity, with notes on hookworm infection. J. Zoo Anim. Med. 10:136-138.
Kazacos KR, Edberg EO. 1979. Dirofilaria immitis infection in foxes and coyotes in Indiana. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 175:909-910.
Kazacos KR, Smith LE Jr. 1979. Loaiasis (Loa loa) in an African student in Indiana. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 28:213-215.
Kazacos KR. 1978. The prevalence of heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs from Indiana. J. Parasitol. 64:959-960.
Kazacos KR. 1978. Gastrointestinal helminths in dogs from a humane shelter in Indiana. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 173:995-997.
Kazacos KR, Fisher LF. 1977. Renal styphlodoriasis in a boa constrictor. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 171:876-878.
Kazacos KR. 1977. Dirofilaria immitis in wild canidae from Indiana. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 44:233-234.
Winterfield RW, Kazacos KR. 1977. Morbidity and mortality of great blue herons in Indiana caused by Eustrongylides ignotus. Avian Dis. 21:448-451.
Kazacos KR. 1976. Increased resistance in the rat to Strongyloides ratti following immunization against Trichinella spiralis. J. Parasitol. 62:493-494.
Kazacos KR. 1976. Immunization of mice against Mesocestoides corti by subcutaneous inoculation of living tetrathyridia. J. Parasitol. 62:161-163.
Kazacos KR. 1975. Increased resistance in the rat to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis following immunization against Trichinella spiralis. Vet. Parasitol. 1:165-174.
Kazacos KR, Thorson RE. 1975. The effect of Mesocestoides corti larval ES antigens on establishment and development of Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 42:170-171.
Kazacos KR, Thorson RE. 1975. Cross-resistance between Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Strongy1oides ratti in rats. J. Parasitol. 61:525-529.
Kazacos K, Mackiewicz JS. 1972. Spermatogenesis in Hunterella nodulosa Mackiewicz and McCrae, 1962. (Cestoidea: Caryophyllidea). Z. f. Parasitenk. 28:21-31.

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